Tuesday, 25 August 2015

Chapter 8: Accessing Organizational Information-Data Warehouse

Chapter 8: Accessing Organizational Information-Data Warehouse

  • base labor budgets on actual number of guests served per hour
  • develop promotional sale item analysis to help avoid losses from overstocking or under stocking inventory
  • determine theoretical and actual costs of food and the use of ingredients

History of Data Warehousing

  •  information from other operational applications is not included
  • operational systems are not integrated,or not available in one place
  • operational information is mainly current-does not include  the history that is required to make good decisions
  • operational information frequently has quality issues(errors)-the information needs to be cleansed
  • without information history,it is to tell how and why things change over time
  • operational systems are not designed for analysis and decision support
Data Warehouse Fundamentals
  • data warehouse is a logical collection of information-gathered from many different operational databases-that supports business analysis activities and decision making tasks.
  • extraction,transformation,and loading(ETL),which is a process that extracts information from internal and external databases,transformation the information using a common set of enterprise definitions,and loads the information into a data warehouse.
  • data mart contains a subset of data warehouse information.
Model of a Typical Data Warehouse





Multidimensional Analysis And Data Mining
  • database contains information in a series of two-dimensional tables.In a data warehouse and data mart,information is multidimensional,meaning it contains layers of columns and rows.
  • cube is the common term for the representation of multidimensional information.
  • data mining is the process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone.
  • data mining tools use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information and infer rules from then predict future behavior and guide decision making.
A Cube of Information for Performing a Multidimensional Analysis on Three Different Stores,for Five Different Products,and Four Different Promotions




Information Cleansing or Scrubbing
  • information cleansing or scrubbing is a process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent,incorrect,or incomplete information

Contact Information in Operational Systems







Standardizing Customer Name from Operational Systems



Information Cleansing Activities



Accurate and Complete Information





Business Intelligence
  • collecting information
  • discerning patterns and meaning in the information
  • responding to the resultant information

Enabling Business Intelligence
  • technology
  • people
  • culture



Thursday, 20 August 2015

Chapter 7 : Storing Organizational Information - Databases

Chapter 7 : Storing Organizational Information - Databases

Storing Organizational Information

  • the computer program used to manage and query a databases is known asa database management system (DBMS).
  • the central concept of a database is that of a collection of records,or pieces of information.
  • typically a given database has a structural description of the type of facts held in that database:
-this description is known as a schema.
-the schema describes the objects that are represented in the database and the relationships among them.
-there are a number of different ways of organizing a schema,that is,of modeling the database structure:
  • these are known as data base models(or data models)
  • the most commonly used model today is the relational model
  • other models,such as the hierarchical model,and network model,use a more explicit representation of relationships.
Relational Database Fundamentals
  • a database maintains information about various types of objects(inventory),events(transactions),people(employees),places(warehouses).
  • hierarchical database model,information is organized into a tree like structure that allows repeating information using parent/child relationships in such way that it cannot have too many relationships.
  • the network database model is a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships.
  • the relational database model is a type of database that stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables.
Entities and Attributes
  • entity in the relational database model is a person,place,thing,transaction,or event about which information is stored.
  • attributes also called fields or columns,are characteristics or properties of an entity class.
Keys and Relationships
  • to manage and organize various entity classes within the relational database model,develops must identity primary keys and foreign keys and use them to create logical relationships.
  • a primary keys is a  field(or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table.
  • a foreign key in the relational database model is a primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables.


Potential Database for Coca-Cola Bottling Company of Egypt(TCCBCE)


Relational Database Advantages
  • from a business perspective database information offers many advantages,includng:
-increased flexibility
-increased scalability and performance
-reduced information redundancy
-increased information integrity(quality)
-increased information security

Increased Flexibility
  • the physical view of information deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device such as hard disk.
  • the logical view of information focuses on how users logically access information to meet their particular business needs.
Increased Scalability and Performance
  • scalability refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands.
  • performance measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction
Reduced Information Redundancy
  • redundancy is the duplication of information,or storing the same information in multiple places.
Increased Information Integrity(Quality)
  • information integrity is a measure of the quality of information.
  • integrity constraints are rules that help ensure the quality of information
  • can be defined and built into the database design.
  • the  database(more appropriately,the database management system,which is discussed below)ensures that users can never violate these constraints.
  • there are two types of integrity constraints:
-relational integrity constraints and business critical integrity constraints
  • relational integrity constraints are rules that enforce basic and fundamental information-based constraints.
  • business-critical integrity constraints enforce business rules vital to  an organization's success and often require more insight and knowledge than relational integrity constraints.

Increased Information Security
  • access levels determine who has access to the different types of information,and access controls determine what type of access they have to the information.
Database Management Systems
  • database management system(DBMS) is software through which users and application programs interact with a database.
Interacting Directly and Indirectly with a Database through a DBMS


Data-Driven Websites
  • the pages on website must change according to what a site visitor is interested in browsing.
  • data-driven websites is an interactive website kept constantly updated and relevent to the needs of  its customers through the use of a database.
Data-Driven Website Business Advantages



Data-Driven Business Intelligence


Integrating Information among Multiple Databases
  • without integration,an organization will spend considerable time entering the same information in multiple systems and suffer from the low quality and inconsistency typically embedded in redundant information.
  • a forward integration takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes.
  • a backward integration takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes.
A Forward and Backward Customer Information Integration Example




Integrating Customer Information among Databases



Thursday, 13 August 2015

Chapter 6: Valuing Organizational Information

Chapter 6: Valuing Organizational Information

Organizational Information

  • information is everywhere in an organization.
  • employees must be able to obtain and analyze all the relevant in formation so they can make the best decision possible.Organizational information comes at different levels and in different formats and'granularities'.
  • information granularity to the extent od detail within the information(fine and detailed or coarse and abstract)
  • succesfully collecting,compiling,sorting,and finally analyzing information from multiple levels,in varied formats,exhibiting different granularity can provide tremedous insight into how an organization is performing.
Levels,Formats,and Granularities of Organizational Information

The Value of Transactional and Analytical Information
  • Transactional information encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work,and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks.
  • eg-withdrawing cash from ATM,making an airline reservation,or purchasing stocks.
  • Analytical information encompasses all organizational information,and its primary purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks.
  • eg-trends,sales,product statistics,and future growth projections.
The Value of Timely  Information
  • timeliness is an aspect of information that depends on the situation.
  • real-time information means immadiate,up to date information
  • real time systems provide real time information in respons to query requests.
Transactional versues Analytical Information


The Value of Quality Information
  • Five Common Characteristic of High Quality Information

  • Low Quality Information Example

Understanding  The Costs Of Poor Information
  • inability to accurately track customers,which directly affects strategic intiatives such as CRM and SCM
  • difficuly identifying the organization's most valuable customers.
  • inability to identify selling opportunities and wasted revenue from marketing to nonexisting customers and nondeliverable mail
  • difficulty tracking revenue because of inaccurate invoices
  • inability to build strong relationships with customers which increases buyer power.
Understanding The Benefits Of Good Information
  • high quality informationcan significantly improve the chances of making a good decision and directly increase an organization's bottom line.

Chapter 5: Organizational Structures That Support Strategic Intiatives

Chapter 5: Organizational Structures That Support Strategic Intiatives

Organizational Structures

  • employees across the organization must work closely together to develop strategic intiatives that create competitive advantages.

IT Roles and Responsibilities
  • information technology is a relitively new functional area,having been around formally in most organizations only for 40 years.
  • chief information officer(CIO) is responsible for (1) overseeing all uses of information technology and (2) ensuring the strategic alignment of  IT  with business goals and objectives.
  • broad functions of a CIO include:
manager- ensure the delivery of all IT projects,on time and within budget.
leader- ensure the strategic vision of IT is in line with the strategic vision of the organization.
communicator-builiding and maintaining strong executive relationships.

  • chief technology officer(CTO) is responsible for ensuring the throughput,speed,accuracy            availability and realiablity.
  • chief security officer(CSO) is responsible for ensuring the security of IT systems and developing strategies and IT safeguards against attacks from hackers and viruses.
  • chief privacy officer(CPO) is responsible for ensuring the ethical and legal use of information within an organization.
  • chief  knowledge officer(CKO) is responsible fr collecting,maintaining and distributing the organization's knowledge.
The Gap between Business Personnel and IT Personnel
  • business personnel possess expertise in functional areas such as marketing,accounting,sales and so forth.
  • IT personnel have the technologies expertise.
Improving Communications
  • must develop strategies for intergrating its IT personnel into the various business functions.
  • must understand the business if theorganization is going to determine which technologies can benefit the business.
  • responsibility of the CIO to ensure effective communications between business and IT personnel.
Organizational Fundamentals-Ethics and Security

Ethics
  • the principles and standards that guide our behavior toward other people.
Privacy
  • the right to be left alone when you want to be,to have control over your own personnel possessions and to not observed without your consent.
Issues Affected  by Technology Advances



Primary Reasons Privacy Issues Reduce Trust for Ebusiness


Security
  • Sources of Unplanned Downtime

The Cost of Downtime


Protecting Intellectual Assets
  • to develop,implement, and maintain appropriate security measures when sending electronic health information
  • imformation security is abroad term encompassing the protection of information from accidental or intentional misuse by persons inside or outside an organization.
Organizational Spending on Information Security



Computer Security Expenditures/Invesment by Industry